Publications are organized on this page by theme.  To see an ordered list of publications by date, please click here.

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Publications on ecological complexity in general

Parrott, L. and Quinn, N.  2016. A complex systems approach for multi-objective water quality regulation on managed wetland landscapes.  Ecosphere, 7(6), e01363.

Landry, J.S., Parrott, L. 2016Could the lateral transfer of nutrients by outbreaking insects lead to consequential landscape-scale effects? Ecosphere, 7(3): e01265.

Messier C., Puettmann K., Chazdon R., Andersson K.P., Angers V.A., Brotons, L., Filotas, E., Tittler, R., Parrott, L., Levin, S.A. 2015. From Management to Stewardship: Viewing Forests As Complex Adaptive Systems in an Uncertain World. Conservation Letters, 8(5):368–377.

Filotas, E., L. Parrott, P. J. Burton, R. L. Chazdon, K. D. Coates, L. Coll, S. Haeussler, K. Martin, S. Nocentini, K. J. Puettmann, F. E. Putz, S. W. Simard, and C. Messier. 2014. Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science. Ecosphere 5(1):1.

Parrott, L. and Lange, H. 2013. An Introduction to Complexity Science. In: Managing Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems: Building Resilience to the Challenge of Global Change. Edited by C. Messier, K.J. Puettmann, K.D. Coates. Routledge, 368 pages.   Download a preprint version.

Parrott, L., Meyer, W. 2012. Future Landscapes: Managing within complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(7): 382–389 doi:10.1890/110082

Parrott, L., 2012. The ubiquitous dynamics of complex systems (Book review). BioScience, 62(6): 607-608.

Parrott, L. 2010. Measuring ecological complexity. Ecological Indicators, 10:1069-1076.

Anand M., Gonzalez A., Guichard F., Kolasa J., Parrott L. Ecological Systems as Complex Systems: Challenges for an Emerging Science. 2010. Diversity, 2(3):395-410.

Parrott, L. 2002. Complexity and the limits of ecological engineering. Transactions of the ASAE, 45(5): 1697-1702.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2000. Incorporating complexity in ecosystem modelling. Complexity International 7.

Publications on complex ecological and social-ecological networks

Heckbert, S., Constanza, R. and Parrott, L. 2014. Achieving Sustainable Societies: Lessons from Modelling the Ancient Maya. Solutions, 5(5): 55-64.

Gonzalès, R. and Parrott, L. 2012. Network theory in the assessment of the sustainability of social-ecological systems. Geography Compass, 6(2): 76-88.

Vitting-Andersen, J., Nowak, A., Rotundo, G., Parrott, L. and Martinez, S. 2011. “Price-quakes” shaking the world’s stock exchanges. PloS ONE, 6(11): e26472.

Filotas, E., Grant, M., Parrott, L., and Rikvold, P. 2010. Positive interactions and the emergence of community structure in meta-communities. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 266: 419-429. (Earlier version published on arXiv. arXiv:1001.1111v1)

Thibert-Plante, X. and Parrott, L. 2007. Prisoner’s Dilemma and Clusters on Small-World Networks. Complexity, 12(6): 22-36.

Côté, P., Parrott, L. and Sabourin, R. 2007. Multi-objective optimization of an ecological assembly model. Ecological Informatics, 2: 23-31.

Arii, K., Derome, R., Parrott, L. 2007. Examining the potential effects of species aggregation on the network structure of food webs. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 69: 119-133.

Côté, P. and Parrott, L. 2006. Controlling food web structure by optimization of a community assembly model. Ecological Informatics, 1(2): 125-131.

Arii, K. and Parrott, L. 2004. Emergence of non-random structure in local food webs generated from randomly structured regional webs. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 227(3): 327-333.

Publications on measuring and quantifying ecological complexity

Tanner, J., Mellin, C., Parrott, L. and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2015. Fine-scale benthic biodiversity patterns inferred from image processing. Ecological Complexity 22: 76-85.

Rios, R., Parrott, L., Lange, H., Mello, R. 2015. Estimating determinism rates to detect patterns in geospatial datasets. Remote Sensing of Environment, 156: 11-20.

Ye, X., Wang, T., Skidmore, A., Fortin, D., Bastille-Rousseau, G., Parrott, L. 2014. A wavelet-based approach to evaluate the roles of structural and functional landscape heterogeneity in animal space use at multiple scales, Ecography, in press.

Proulx, R., Parrott, L., Fahrig, L. and Currie, D. 2014. Long time-scale recurrences in ecology: Detecting Relationships between Climate Dynamics and Biodiversity among a Latitudinal Gradient.  Chapter 11 in: Recurrence Quantification Analysis: Theory and Best Practices, (Eds.) Webber, C. and Marwan, N. Springer Publishing, NY. In press.

Lambert, G., Jennings, S., Hinz, H., Murray, L., Parrott, L., Kaiser, M., Hiddink, J.   2013. A comparison of two techniques for the rapid assessment of marine habitat complexity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, doi: 10.1111/2041-210x.12007

Lawley, V., Parrott, L., Lewis, M., Sinclair, R. and Ostendorf, B. 2013. Self-organisation and complex dynamics of regenerating vegetation in an arid ecosystem: 82 years of recovery after grazing. Journal of Arid Environments, 88: 156-164.

Mellin, C., Parrott, L., Andréfouët, S., Bradshaw, C., MacNeil, M. A. and Caley, M.J. 2012. Multi-scale marine biodiversity patterns inferred efficiently from habitat image processing. Ecological Applications, 22(3): 792-803.

Parrott, L. 2010. Measuring ecological complexity. Ecological Indicators, 10:1069-1076.

Botin, Z. T., David, L. T., del Rosario, R. C. H., and Parrott, L. 2010. Spatio-temporal complexity analysis of the sea surface temperature in the Philippines, Ocean Science, 6, 933-947.

Proulx, R. and Parrott, L. 2009. Structural complexity in digital images as an ecological indicator for monitoring forest dynamics across scale, space and time. Ecological Indicators, 9(6): 1248-1256.

Proulx, R., Côté, P. and Parrott, L. 2009. Multivariate recurrence plots for visualizing and quantifying the dynamics of spatially extended natural systems. Ecological Complexity, 6: 37-47.

Juge, C., Champagne, A., Coughlan, A.P., Juge, N., Parrott, L., and Piché, Y. 2009. Quantifying the Growth of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Usefulness of the Fractal Dimension. Botany, 87(4): 387-400.

Parrott, L., Proulx, R. and Thibert-Plante, X. 2008. Three-dimensional metrics for the analysis of spatiotemporal data in ecology. Ecological Informatics, 3(6): 343-353.

Proulx, R., Côté, P. and Parrott, L. 2008. Use of recurrence analysis to measure the dynamical stability of a multi-species community model. The European Physical Journal – Special Topics, 164: 117-126.

Proulx, R., St-Laurent, M.-H. & Parrott, L. 2008. Emergent phenotypes: Association between morphology and coloration in fish. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 10: 1037-1050.

Proulx, R. and Parrott, L. 2008. Measures of structural complexity in digital images for monitoring the ecological signature of an old-growth forest ecosystem. Ecological Indicators, 8(3):270-284.

Parrott, L. 2005. Quantifying the complexity of simulated spatiotemporal population dynamics. Ecological Complexity, 2(2):175-184.

Parrott, L. 2004. Analysis of simulated long-term ecosystem dynamics using visual recurrence analysis. Ecological Complexity 1(2): 111-125.

Publications on individual and agent-based modelling of ecosystems and regional landscapes

Chion, C., Lagrois, D., Dupras, J., Turgeon, S., McQuinn, I. H., Michaud, R., Ménard, N. and Parrott, L. 2017Underwater acoustic impacts of shipping management measures: Results from a social-ecological model of boat and whale movements in the St. Lawrence River Estuary (Canada)Ecological Modelling354, 72–87.

Parrott, L. 2017The modelling spiral for solving ‘wicked’ environmental problems: Guidance for stakeholder involvement and collaborative model development.  Methods in Ecology and Evolution, in press.

Vincenot, C. E., Mazzoleni, S., Parrott, L. (Editors) 2016. Hybrid Solutions for the Modelling of Complex Environmental Systems. Frontiers Media: Lausanne Switzerland. 186 pp. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88945-055-8  Available for download from:

Marley, J., Hyde, A., Salkeld, J. H., Prima, M.-C., Parrott, L., Senger, S. E., & Tyson, R. C. 2017. Does human education reduce conflicts between humans and bears? An agent-based modelling approach. Ecological Modelling, 343, 15–24.

Allen, C, Parrott, L., and Kyle, C. 2016An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)PeerJ4:e2001.

Parrott, L. Chion, C. Turgeon, S. Ménard, N. Cantin, G. Michaud, R. 2016. Slow Down and Save the Whales. Solutions. Vol 6, No. 6. pp. 40-47

Girard, P., J. Levison, L. Parrott, M. Larocque, M.-A. Ouellet, and D. M. Green. 2015. Modeling cross-scale relationships between climate, hydrology, and individual animals: generating scenarios for stream salamanders. Frontiers in Environmental Science 3.

Girard, P., Caron, C-A, Parrott, L. and Green, D. 2015. Pattern-oriented hybrid ecological models and their value for understanding stream salamander viability in changing hydrological regimes. Ecological Modelling, 296: 12-23.

Latombe G., Parrott L., Basille, M. and Fortin D. 2014. Uniting Statistical and Individual-Based Approaches for Animal Movement Modelling. PLoS ONE 9(6): e99938. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099938

Chion, C., Landry, J.A., Parrott, L., Marceau, D., Lamontagne, P., Turgeon, S., Michaud, R., Martins, C.C.A., Ménard, N., Cantin, G., and Dionne, S. 2014. Insights from agent-based modelling to simulate whale-watching tours: Influence of captains’ decision strategy on whale exposure and excursion content. In: Higham, J., Lusseau, D. and Bedjer, L. (Eds.), Whale-Watching, Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, United Kingdom). ISBN: 9780521195973.

Latombe G., Fortin D., Parrott L. 2014. Spatio-temporal dynamics in the response of woodland caribou and moose to the passage of grey wolf. Journal of Animal Ecology 83: 185–198.

Gonzalès, R., Cardille, J. and Parrott, L. 2013Agent-based Land-Use Models and Farming Games on the Social Web – Fertile Ground for a Collaborative FutureEcological Informatics, 15: 14-21.

Chion, C., Cantin, G., Dionne, S., Dubeau, B., Lamontagne, P., Landry, J.A., Marceau, D., Martins, C.C.A., Ménard, N., Michaud, R., Parrott, L. & Turgeon, S. 2013. Spatiotemporal modelling for policy analysis: Application to sustainable management of whale-watching activities. Marine Policy, 38: 151-162.

Parrott, L., Chion, C., Gonzales, R. and Latombe, G. 2012. Agents, Individuals and Networks: Modeling Methods to Inform Natural Resource Management in Regional Landscapes. Ecology & Society, Ecology & Society, 17 (3): 32. [online] URL:

Parrott, L., Chion, C., Martins, C.C.A., Lamontagne, P., Turgeon, S., Landry, J.A., Zhens, B., Marceau, D., Michaud, R., Cantin, G., Menard, N., Dionne, S. 2011. A decision support system to assist management of human activities in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Canada. Environmental Modelling and Software, 26: 1403 – 1418.

Chion, C., Lamontagne, P., Turgeon, S., Parrott, L., Landry, J.A., Marceau, D., Martins, C.C.A., Michaud, R., Ménard, N., Cantin, G., Dionne, S. 2011. Eliciting cognitive processes underlying patterns of human-wildlife interactions for agent-based modelling. Ecological Modelling, 222(14): 2213-2226.

Parrott, L. 2011. Hybrid modelling of complex ecological systems for decision support: Recent successes and future perspectives. Ecological Informatics, 6: 44-49.

Latombe, G., Parrott, L. and Fortin, D. 2011. Levels of Emergence in Individual Based Models: Coping with scarcity of data and pattern redundancy. Ecological Modelling 222(9):1557-1568.

Filotas, E., Grant, M., Parrott, L., and Rikvold, P. 2010. Positive interactions and the emergence of community structure in meta-communities. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 266: 419-429.

Filotas, E., Grant, M., Parrott, L., and Rikvold, P. 2010. The effect of positive interactions on community structure in a multi-species metacommunity model along an environmental gradient. Ecological Modelling, 221:885-894.

Banos, A. and Parrott, L. 2009. Agent-based spatial simulation (Editorial). Revue Internationale de Géomatique/International Journal of Geomatics 19(4): 381-384.

Parrott, L. 2009. Understanding and managing the landscape as a complex system: What can bottom-up modelling approaches contribute? Proceedings of the Place & Purpose Symposium, Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial International Conference, 30 September – 1 October, 2009. Adelaide Convention Centre, Adelaide, Australia. 15 pp.

Filotas, E., Grant, M., Parrott, L. and Rikvold, P. 2008. Community-driven dispersal in an individual-based predator-prey model. Ecological Complexity, 5: 238-251.

Parrott, L. 2008. Ecological Informatics: Adaptive Agents. In: Jørgensen, S.E. and Fath, B. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Ecology, vol. 1 of 5, pp. 47-51. Oxford: Elsevier.

Anwar, M., Jeanneret, C., Parrott, L. and Marceau, D. 2007. Conceptualization and implementation of a multi-agent model to simulate whale-watching tours in the St. Lawrence estuary in Quebec, Canada. Environmental Modeling and Software, 22 (12), p.1775-1787.

Parrott, L. and Kok, R. 2006. Use of an object-based model to represent complex features of ecosystems. In: Minai, A. and Bar-Yam, Y. (Eds.) Unifying themes in complex systems. Springer: Berlin. pp. 169-179.

MacVicar, B. J., L. Parrott, and A. G. Roy. 2006. A two-dimensional discrete particle model of gravel bed river systems, J. Geophys. Res., 111, F03009, doi:10.1029/2005JF000316.

Arii, K. and Parrott, L. 2006. Examining the colonization process of exotic species varying in competitive abilities using a cellular automaton model. Ecological Modelling, 199(3): 219-228.

Parrott, L. and Lange, H. 2004. Use of interactive forest growth simulation to characterise spatial stand structure. Forest Ecology and Management 194: 29-47.

Parrott, L., R. Lacroix and K. Wade. 2003. Design considerations for the implementation of multi-agent systems in the dairy industry. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 39(2): 79-98.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2002. A generic, individual-based approach to modelling higher trophic levels in simulation of terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 154: 151-178.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2001. A generic primary producer model for use in ecosystem simulation. Ecological Modelling 139(1): 75-99.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2000. Use of an object-based model to represent complex features of ecosystems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Complex Systems, New England Complex System Institute, Nashua, NH, May 21-26, 2000. InterJournal Manuscript #371.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2000. Incorporating complexity in ecosystem modelling. Complexity International 7.

Mountain Pine Beetle

Landry, J.-S., Parrott, L., Price, D. T., Ramankutty, N., and Matthews, H. D. 2016Modelling long-term impacts of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, albedo, and radiative forcing, Biogeosciences, 13, 5277-5295, doi:10.5194/bg-13-5277-2016.

Dhar, A., Parrott, L., & Hawkins, C. 2016. Aftermath of Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in British Columbia: Stand Dynamics, Management Response and Ecosystem Resilience. Forests 2016, Vol. 7, Page 171, 7(8), 171.

Dhar, A., Parrott, L., & Heckbert, S. 2016Consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreak on forest ecosystem services in western CanadaCanadian Journal of Forest Research46, 987–999. doi:

Landry, J. S., Price, D.T., Ramankutty, N., Parrott, L. and Matthews, H. D. 2016. Implementation of a Marauding Insect Module (MIM, version 1.0) in the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS, version 2.6b4) Dynamic Vegetation–Land Surface Model. Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 1243-1261.

Landry, J.S., Parrott, L. 2016. Could the lateral transfer of nutrients by outbreaking insects lead to consequential landscape-scale effects? Ecosphere, 7(3): e01265.

Landry, J.-S., Price, D. T., Ramankutty, N., Parrott, L., and Matthews, H. D. 2015Implementation of a Marauding Insect Module (MIM, version 1.0) in the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS, version 2.6b4) Dynamic Vegetation–Land Surface Model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 10365-10409, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-10365-2015, 2015.

Landry, J.-S., Ramankutty, N., & Parrott, L. 2015. Investigating the effects of sub-grid cell dynamic heterogeneity on the large-scale modelling of albedo in boreal forests. Earth Interactions, 151201150403007.


Li, X. & Parrott, L. 2016. An improved Genetic Algorithm for spatial optimization of multi-objective and multi-site land use allocation. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 59, 184–194.

Kulkarni, A., Marwan, N., Parrott, L., Proulx, R. and Webber C. 2011. Recurrence plots at the crossroad between theory and application (Editorial). International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 21(4): 997-1001.

Gonzales, R., Cardille, J., Parrott, L., Gaudreau, C. and Deest, G. 2009. SFMN GeoSearch: An interactive approach to the visualization and exchange of point-based ecological data. Ecological Informatics, 4: 196-205. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2009.07.007

Parrott L., R. Kok and R. Lacroix. 1996. Daily average temperatures: Modeling and generation with a Fourier transform approach. Transactions of the ASAE 39(5): 1911-1922.


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