Publications by date

Publications ordered by date

For copies of any publications that you can’t access, please email


Wale, J. and Parrott, L. 2024. A Framework for Indigenous Climate Resilience: A Gitxsan Case Study. Canadian Geographies,

Greaves, C. and Parrott, L. 2024. Re-grounding cumulative effects assessments in ecological resilience, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 105,


Sales, L. and Parrott, L. 2023. The owls are coming: positive effects of climate change in Northern ecosystems depend on grassland protection. Science of the Total Environment, in press.

Pashanejad, E., Thierry, H., Robinson, B.E., and Parrott, L. 2023. The application of semantic modelling to map pollination service provisioning at large landscape scales, Ecological Modelling, 484,

Andrade-Rivas, F., Paul, N., Spiegel, J., Henderson, S. B., Parrott, L., Delgado-Ron, J. A., et al. 2023. Mapping potential population-level pesticide exposures in Ecuador using a modular and scalable geospatial strategy. GeoHealth, 7, e2022GH000775.

Williamson, M. A.,  Parrott, L.,  Carter, N. H., &  Ford, A. T. 2023.  Implementation resistance and the human dimensions of connectivity planning. People and Nature,  00,  1–15.

Sutherland, I.J., Copes-Gerbitz, K., Parrott, L. and Rhemtulla, J. 2023. Dynamics in the landscape ecology of institutions: lags, legacies, and feedbacks drive path-dependency of forest landscapes in British Columbia, Canada 1858–2020. Landscape Ecology.


Crevier, Lucas (Luke) Philip. 2023. Bears, spirals, and stakeholders : agent-based models and the need for stakeholder involvement in their development and implementation. The University of British Columbia, MSc thesis.


Carturan, B., Parrott, L. and Pither, J. 2022. Functional Richness and Resilience in Coral Reef Communities. Front. Ecol. Evol., 02 June 2022,

Reiter, D., Pittman, J., Anammasiya Ayambire, R., Brown, H. C. P., Colla, S.R., Loewen, T.M., McCune, J.L., Olive, A. and Parrott, L. 2022. Lessons learnt from multiple private land conservation programs in Canada to inform at-risk species conservation. Canadian Geographies,

Field, R.D. and L. Parrott. 2022. Mapping the functional connectivity of ecosystem services supply across a regional landscape. eLife, 11:e69395. DOI:


Wale, Janna D. 2022. Climate rez-ilience : building transformative climate resilience in Indigenous communities. The University of British Columbia, MSc thesis.


Thierry, H., Parrott, L., Robinson, B. 2021. Next steps for ecosystem service models: integrating complex interactions and beneficiaries. FACETS • 29 September 2021 •

Reiter, D., Parrott, L. and Pittman, J. 2021. Species at risk habitat conservation on private land: the perspective of cattle ranchers. Biodiversity and Conservation 30:2377–2393

Crevier, L., Salkeld, J., Marley, J. and Parrott, L. 2021. Making the best possible choice: Using agent-based modelling to inform wildlife management in small communities, Ecological Modelling, 446,  (Model code download here)

Bennett, E.M., Baird, J., Baulch, H., Chaplin-Kramer, R.,  Fraser, E., Loring, P., Morrison, P., Parrott, L., Sherren, K.,  Winkler, K.-J., Cimon-Morin, J., Fortin, M.J., Kurylyk, B. L., Lundholm, J., Poulin, M., Rieb, J.T., Gonzalez, A., Hickey, G.M., Humphries, M., Krishna,K.C., Lapen, D. 2021. Ecosystem services and the resilience of agricultural landscapes, Advances in Ecological Research, Academic Press.


Reiter, D., Pittman, J. & Parrott, L. 2020. Evaluating the Species at Risk Partnerships on Agricultural Lands program in southwest Saskatchewan: The perspective of producers. Prepared for the Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association and the South of the Divide Conservation Action Program Inc.


Crevier, L. and Parrott, L. 2019. Synergy between adaptive management and collaborative modelling: the two processes as interconnected spirals.  Ecological Informatics, 53: 100982.

Reiter, D., Meyer, W., Parrott, L., Grace, P. and Baker, D. 2019. Environmental Decision Support Systems: Local and National Perspectives from Canada and Australia. Canadian Geographer, 63(4): 631-642.

Marley, J., Salkeld, J., Hamilton, T., Senger, S., Tyson, R. and Parrott, L. 2019. Individual-based modelling of black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging in Whistler, BC: Reducing human-bear interactions. Ecological Modelling, 407.

Gonazalès, R. and Parrott, L. 2019. How Stakeholders Structure their Collaborations to Anticipate and Tackle the Threat of Mountain Pine Beetle in the Jasper/Hinton (Alberta, Canada) Area. Canadian Journal of Forest Research,


Chion C, Turgeon S, Cantin G, Michaud R, Ménard N, Lesage V, Parrott L, Beaufils P, Clermont Y, Gravel C. 2018. A voluntary conservation agreement reduces the risks of lethal collisions between ships and whales in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Québec, Canada): From co-construction to monitoring compliance and assessing effectiveness. PLoS ONE 13(9): e0202560.

Amalesh Dhar, Lael Parrott & Scott Heckbert 2018. Large scale biotic damage impacts on forest ecosystem services, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33:8,741-755, DOI: 10.1080/02827581.2018.1495256

Carturan, B., Parrott, L. and Pither, J. 2018. A modified trait-based framework for assessing the resilience of ecosystem services provided by coral reef communities. Ecosphere, 9(5).

Reiter, D., Meyer, W., Parrott, L., Baker, D. and Grace, P. 2018Increasing the effectiveness of environmental decision support systems: lessons from climate change adaptation projects in Canada and Australia. Regional Environmental Change, 18:11731184


Field, R.D. & Parrott, L. 2017. Multi-ecosystem services networks: A new perspective for assessing landscape connectivity and resilience. Ecological Complexity, 32, 31–41.

Reiter, D., Meyer, W. & Parrott, L. 2017. Why do NRM regional planning processes and tools have limited effect? Presenting the perspective of the end user. Climate Risk Management, 18, 66–74.

Chion, C., Lagrois, D., Dupras, J., Turgeon, S., McQuinn, I. H., Michaud, R., Ménard, N. and Parrott, L. 2017. Underwater acoustic impacts of shipping management measures: Results from a social-ecological model of boat and whale movements in the St. Lawrence River Estuary (Canada). Ecological Modelling, 354, 72–87.

Parrott, L. 2017The modelling spiral for solving ‘wicked’ environmental problems: Guidance for stakeholder involvement and collaborative model development.  Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 8(8): 1005–1011.

Marley, J., Hyde, A., Salkeld, J. H., Prima, M.-C., Parrott, L., Senger, S. E., & Tyson, R. C. 2017Does human education reduce conflicts between humans and bears? An agent-based modelling approachEcological Modelling343, 15–24.


Vincenot, C. E., Mazzoleni, S., Parrott, L. (Editors) 2016. Hybrid Solutions for the Modelling of Complex Environmental Systems. Frontiers Media: Lausanne Switzerland. 186 pp. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88945-055-8  Available for download from:

Landry, J.-S., Parrott, L., Price, D. T., Ramankutty, N., and Matthews, H. D. 2016. Modelling long-term impacts of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, albedo, and radiative forcing, Biogeosciences, 13, 5277-5295, doi:10.5194/bg-13-5277-2016.

Dhar, A., Parrott, L., & Hawkins, C. 2016Aftermath of Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in British Columbia: Stand Dynamics, Management Response and Ecosystem ResilienceForests 2016, Vol. 7, Page 1717(8), 171.

Li, X. & Parrott, L. 2016. An improved Genetic Algorithm for spatial optimization of multi-objective and multi-site land use allocationComputers, Environment and Urban Systems, 59, 184–194.

Puettmann, K., Parrott, L. and Messier, C. 2016. Teaching complex adaptive systems science in natural resource management: Examples from forestry. Natural Sciences Education, in press.

Dhar, A., Parrott, L., & Heckbert, S. 2016. Consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreak on forest ecosystem services in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 46, 987–999. doi:

Allen, C, Parrott, L., and Kyle, C. 2016. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)PeerJ4:e2001.

Parrott, L. and Quinn, N.  2016A complex systems approach for multi-objective water quality regulation on managed wetland landscapes.  Ecosphere, 7(6), e01363.

Landry, J. S., Price, D.T., Ramankutty, N., Parrott, L. and Matthews, H. D. 2016. Implementation of a Marauding Insect Module (MIM, version 1.0) in the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS, version 2.6b4) Dynamic Vegetation–Land Surface Model. Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 1243-1261.

Parrott, L. Chion, C. Turgeon, S. Ménard, N. Cantin, G. Michaud, R. 2016Slow Down and Save the Whales:How a multi-stakeholder collaboration has led to positive change in maritime transportation to enhance whale conservation in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Quebec, Canada.  Solutions. Vol 6, No. 6. pp. 40-47

Landry, J.S., Parrott, L. 2016Could the lateral transfer of nutrients by outbreaking insects lead to consequential landscape-scale effects? Ecosphere, 7(3): e01265.


Landry, J.-S., Price, D. T., Ramankutty, N., Parrott, L., and Matthews, H. D. 2015Implementation of a Marauding Insect Module (MIM, version 1.0) in the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS, version 2.6b4) Dynamic Vegetation–Land Surface Model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 10365-10409, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-10365-2015, 2015.

Landry, J.-S., Ramankutty, N., & Parrott, L. 2015. Investigating the effects of sub-grid cell dynamic heterogeneity on the large-scale modelling of albedo in boreal forestsEarth Interactions, 151201150403007.

Girard, P., J. Levison, L. Parrott, M. Larocque, M.-A. Ouellet, and D. M. Green. 2015Modeling cross-scale relationships between climate, hydrology, and individual animals: generating scenarios for stream salamanders. Frontiers in Environmental Science 3.

Messier C., Puettmann K., Chazdon R., Andersson K.P., Angers V.A., Brotons, L., Filotas, E., Tittler, R., Parrott, L., Levin, S.A. 2015From Management to Stewardship: Viewing Forests As Complex Adaptive Systems in an Uncertain World. Conservation Letters, 8(5): 368-377.

Tanner, J., Mellin, C., Parrott, L. and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2015Fine-scale benthic biodiversity patterns inferred from image processingEcological Complexity 22: 76-85.

Rios, R., Parrott, L., Lange, H., Mello, R. 2015Estimating determinism rates to detect patterns in geospatial datasetsRemote Sensing of Environment, 156: 11-20.

Girard, P., Caron, C-A, Parrott, L. and Green, D. 2015Pattern-oriented hybrid ecological models and their value for understanding stream salamander viability in changing hydrological regimes. Ecological Modelling, 296: 12-23.


Heckbert, S., Constanza, R. and Parrott, L. 2014Achieving Sustainable Societies: Lessons from Modelling the Ancient Maya. Solutions, 5(5): 55-64.

Ye, X., Wang, T., Skidmore, A., Fortin, D., Bastille-Rousseau, G., Parrott, L. 2014. A wavelet-based approach to evaluate the roles of structural and functional landscape heterogeneity in animal space use at multiple scales, Ecography, in press.

Latombe G., Parrott L., Basille, M. and Fortin D. 2014. Uniting Statistical and Individual-Based Approaches for Animal Movement Modelling. PLoS ONE 9(6): e99938. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099938

Proulx, R., Parrott, L., Fahrig, L. and Currie, D. 2014. Long time-scale recurrences in ecology: Detecting Relationships between Climate Dynamics and Biodiversity among a Latitudinal Gradient.  Chapter 11 in: Recurrence Quantification Analysis: Theory and Best Practices, (Eds.) Webber, C. and Marwan, N. Springer Publishing, NY. In press.

Filotas, E., L. Parrott, P. J. Burton, R. L. Chazdon, K. D. Coates, L. Coll, S. Haeussler, K. Martin, S. Nocentini, K. J. Puettmann, F. E. Putz, S. W. Simard, and C. Messier. 2014. Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science. Ecosphere 5(1):1.

Latombe G., Fortin D., Parrott L. 2014. Spatio-temporal dynamics in the response of woodland caribou and moose to the passage of grey wolf. Journal of Animal Ecology 83: 185–198.

Chion, C., Landry, J.A., Parrott, L., Marceau, D., Lamontagne, P., Turgeon, S., Michaud, R., Martins, C.C.A., Ménard, N., Cantin, G., and Dionne, S. 2014. Insights from agent-based modelling to simulate whale-watching tours: Influence of captains’ decision strategy on whale exposure and excursion content. In: Higham, J., Lusseau, D. and Bedjer, L. (Eds.), Whale-Watching, Sustainable Tourism and Ecological Management. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, United Kingdom).ISBN: 9780521195973.


Gonzalès, R., Cardille, J. and Parrott, L. 2013Agent-based Land-Use Models and Farming Games on the Social Web – Fertile Ground for a Collaborative FutureEcological Informatics, 15: 14-21.

Parrott, L. and Lange, H. 2013. An Introduction to Complexity Science. In: Managing Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems: Building Resilience to the Challenge of Global Change. Edited by C. Messier, K.J. Puettmann, K.D. Coates. Routledge, 368 pages.   Download a preprint version.

Chion, C., Cantin, G., Dionne, S., Dubeau, B., Lamontagne, P., Landry, J.A., Marceau, D., Martins, C.C.A., Ménard, N., Michaud, R., Parrott, L. & Turgeon, S. 2013. Spatiotemporal modelling for policy analysis: Application to sustainable management of whale-watching activities. Marine Policy, 38: 151-162.

Lambert, G., Jennings, S., Hinz, H., Murray, L., Parrott, L., Kaiser, M., Hiddink, J.   2013. A comparison of two techniques for the rapid assessment of marine habitat complexity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, doi: 10.1111/2041-210x.12007

Lawley, V., Parrott, L., Lewis, M., Sinclair, R. and Ostendorf, B. 2013. Self-organisation and complex dynamics of regenerating vegetation in an arid ecosystem: 82 years of recovery after grazing. Journal of Arid Environments, 88: 156-164.


Parrott, L., Meyer, W. 2012. Future Landscapes: Managing within complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(7): 382–389 doi:10.1890/110082

Parrott, L., Chion, C., Gonzales, R. and Latombe, G. 2012Agents, Individuals and Networks: Modeling Methods to Inform Natural Resource Management in Regional Landscapes. Ecology & Society, Ecology & Society, 17 (3): 32. [online] URL:

Parrott, L., 2012. The ubiquitous dynamics of complex systems (Book review). BioScience, 62(6): 607-608.

Gonzalès, R. and Parrott, L. 2012. Network theory in the assessment of the sustainability of social-ecological systems. Geography Compass, 6(2): 76-88.

Mellin, C., Parrott, L., Andréfouët, S., Bradshaw, C., MacNeil, M. A. and Caley, M.J. 2012. Multi-scale marine biodiversity patterns inferred efficiently from habitat image processing. Ecological Applications, 22(3): 792-803.


Parrott, L., Chion, C., Martins, C.C.A., Lamontagne, P., Turgeon, S., Landry, J.A., Zhens, B., Marceau, D., Michaud, R., Cantin, G., Menard, N., Dionne, S. 2011A decision support system to assist management of human activities in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Canada. Environmental Modelling and Software, 26: 1403 – 1418.

Chion, C., Lamontagne, P., Turgeon, S., Parrott, L., Landry, J.A., Marceau, D., Martins, C.C.A., Michaud, R., Ménard, N., Cantin, G., Dionne, S. 2011. Eliciting cognitive processes underlying patterns of human-wildlife interactions for agent-based modelling. Ecological Modelling, 222(14): 2213-2226.

Parrott, L. 2011Hybrid modelling of complex ecological systems for decision support: Recent successes and future perspectives. Ecological Informatics, 6: 44-49.

Latombe, G., Parrott, L. and Fortin, D. 2011. Levels of Emergence in Individual Based Models: Coping with scarcity of data and pattern redundancy. Ecological Modelling 222(9):1557-1568.

Vitting-Andersen, J., Nowak, A., Rotundo, G., Parrott, L. and Martinez, S. 2011. “Price-quakes” shaking the world’s stock exchanges. PloS ONE, 6(11): e26472.

Kulkarni, A., Marwan, N., Parrott, L., Proulx, R. and Webber C. 2011. Recurrence plots at the crossroad between theory and application (Editorial). International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 21(4): 997-1001.


Parrott, L. 2010Measuring ecological complexity. Ecological Indicators, 10:1069-1076.

Anand M., Gonzalez A., Guichard F., Kolasa J., Parrott L. Ecological Systems as Complex Systems: Challenges for an Emerging Science2010. Diversity, 2(3):395-410.

Filotas, E., Grant, M., Parrott, L., and Rikvold, P. 2010. Positive interactions and the emergence of community structure in meta-communities. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 266: 419-429. (Earlier version published on arXiv. arXiv:1001.1111v1)

Botin, Z. T., David, L. T., del Rosario, R. C. H., and Parrott, L. 2010. Spatio-temporal complexity analysis of the sea surface temperature in the Philippines, Ocean Science, 6, 933-947.

Filotas, E., Grant, M., Parrott, L., and Rikvold, P. 2010. The effect of positive interactions on community structure in a multi-species metacommunity model along an environmental gradient. Ecological Modelling, 221:885-894.


Proulx, R. and Parrott, L. 2009. Structural complexity in digital images as an ecological indicator for monitoring forest dynamics across scale, space and time. Ecological Indicators, 9(6): 1248-1256.

Proulx, R., Côté, P. and Parrott, L. 2009. Multivariate recurrence plots for visualizing and quantifying the dynamics of spatially extended natural systems. Ecological Complexity, 6: 37-47.

Juge, C., Champagne, A., Coughlan, A.P., Juge, N., Parrott, L., and Piché, Y. 2009. Quantifying the Growth of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Usefulness of the Fractal Dimension. Botany, 87(4): 387-400.

Banos, A. and Parrott, L. 2009. Agent-based spatial simulation (Editorial). Revue Internationale de Géomatique/International Journal of Geomatics 19(4): 381-384.

Parrott, L. 2009. Understanding and managing the landscape as a complex system: What can bottom-up modelling approaches contribute? Proceedings of the Place & Purpose Symposium, Spatial Sciences Institute Biennial International Conference, 30 September – 1 October, 2009. Adelaide Convention Centre, Adelaide, Australia. 15 pp.

Gonzales, R., Cardille, J., Parrott, L., Gaudreau, C. and Deest, G. 2009. SFMN GeoSearch: An interactive approach to the visualization and exchange of point-based ecological data. Ecological Informatics, 4: 196-205. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2009.07.007


Parrott, L., Proulx, R. and Thibert-Plante, X. 2008. Three-dimensional metrics for the analysis of spatiotemporal data in ecology. Ecological Informatics, 3(6): 343-353.

Proulx, R., Côté, P. and Parrott, L. 2008. Use of recurrence analysis to measure the dynamical stability of a multi-species community model. The European Physical Journal – Special Topics, 164: 117-126.

Proulx, R., St-Laurent, M.-H. & Parrott, L. 2008. Emergent phenotypes: Association between morphology and coloration in fish. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 10: 1037-1050.

Proulx, R. and Parrott, L. 2008. Measures of structural complexity in digital images for monitoring the ecological signature of an old-growth forest ecosystem. Ecological Indicators, 8(3):270-284.

Filotas, E., Grant, M., Parrott, L. and Rikvold, P. 2008. Community-driven dispersal in an individual-based predator-prey model. Ecological Complexity, 5: 238-251.

Parrott, L. 2008. Ecological Informatics: Adaptive Agents. In: Jørgensen, S.E. and Fath, B. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Ecology, vol. 1 of 5, pp. 47-51. Oxford: Elsevier.


Thibert-Plante, X. and Parrott, L. 2007. Prisoner’s Dilemma and Clusters on Small-World Networks. Complexity, 12(6): 22-36.

Côté, P., Parrott, L. and Sabourin, R. 2007. Multi-objective optimization of an ecological assembly model. Ecological Informatics, 2: 23-31.

Arii, K., Derome, R., Parrott, L. 2007. Examining the potential effects of species aggregation on the network structure of food webs. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 69: 119-133.

Anwar, M., Jeanneret, C., Parrott, L. and Marceau, D. 2007. Conceptualization and implementation of a multi-agent model to simulate whale-watching tours in the St. Lawrence estuary in Quebec, Canada. Environmental Modeling and Software, 22 (12), p.1775-1787.


Côté, P. and Parrott, L. 2006. Controlling food web structure by optimization of a community assembly model. Ecological Informatics, 1(2): 125-131.

Parrott, L. and Kok, R. 2006. Use of an object-based model to represent complex features of ecosystems. In: Minai, A. and Bar-Yam, Y. (Eds.) Unifying themes in complex systems. Springer: Berlin. pp. 169-179.

MacVicar, B. J., L. Parrott, and A. G. Roy. 2006. A two-dimensional discrete particle model of gravel bed river systems, J. Geophys. Res., 111, F03009, doi:10.1029/2005JF000316.

Arii, K. and Parrott, L. 2006. Examining the colonization process of exotic species varying in competitive abilities using a cellular automaton model. Ecological Modelling, 199(3): 219-228.

2005 and older

Parrott, L. 2005. Quantifying the complexity of simulated spatiotemporal population dynamics. Ecological Complexity, 2(2):175-184.

Parrott, L. 2004. Analysis of simulated long-term ecosystem dynamics using visual recurrence analysis. Ecological Complexity 1(2): 111-125.

Parrott, L. and Lange, H. 2004. Use of interactive forest growth simulation to characterise spatial stand structure. Forest Ecology and Management 194: 29-47.

Parrott, L., R. Lacroix and K. Wade. 2003. Design considerations for the implementation of multi-agent systems in the dairy industry. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 39(2): 79-98.

Arii, K. and Parrott, L. 2004. Emergence of non-random structure in local food webs generated from randomly structured regional webs. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 227(3): 327-333.

Parrott, L. 2002. Complexity and the limits of ecological engineering. Transactions of the ASAE, 45(5): 1697-1702.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2002. A generic, individual-based approach to modelling higher trophic levels in simulation of terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 154: 151-178.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2001. A generic primary producer model for use in ecosystem simulation. Ecological Modelling 139(1): 75-99.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2000Incorporating complexity in ecosystem modelling. Complexity International 7.

Parrott, L. and R. Kok. 2000. Use of an object-based model to represent complex features of ecosystems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Complex Systems, New England Complex System Institute, Nashua, NH, May 21-26, 2000. InterJournal Manuscript #371.

Parrott L., R. Kok and R. Lacroix. 1996. Daily average temperatures: Modeling and generation with a Fourier transform approach. Transactions of the ASAE 39(5): 1911-1922.


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